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FORD BRONCO -> RECOVERY, TOWING, PLOWING & OFF ROAD; tow hooks, winches, RTI... -> Receiver
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This is a Ford Bronco, Truck & Van Technical & Parts LINKS site developed by the MIESK5 Family & is not affiliated with the Ford Motor Co. in any manner.
Although we initially developed this site for 78-96 Big Broncos, information in many Links also applies to F, E Series & Cars
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"...If you look closely at the crumple zone youll see that it is only spot welded at the tops of the ripples..."
Source: by Biggie_truck at FSB
Bumper, Front Fabrication & Installation in an 88
Source: by Reptillikus (Kevin W) at
Bumper, Front pics in an 85
Source: by Chris C (Chris85xlt, Erika) at
Bumper, Front pics in an 86
Source: by bigboyntexas (lee1633, THE THING) at
Bumper, Front, pics & Info, welded to crush section of frame in a 96
Source: by Al S (White Cloud, OwlStu) at
Bumper, Rear Fabrication & Installation in an 88
Source: by Reptillikus (Project 4D2, Kevin W) at
Bumper, Rear Fabrication & Installation w/Harbor Freight Receiver in a 93
Source: by TeamTopFleet at FSB
Bumper, Rear Fabrication & Installation, Drop, Custom in a 91
Source: by Meixter (Cookie Monster) at
Bumper, Rear pic w/Receiver in a 96
Source: by FRDKPR at
Bumper, Rear pics w/Receiver & Bracket Mods in an 85
Source: by Chris B (Blue, bronco boy) at
Bumper, Rear Receiver/Tow Hook Discussion
Source: by members at FSB
Crumple Zones
Source: by Steve83 (Steve, That dirty old truck) & va92bronco at FSB
Installation, Front, Hidden Hitch in an 88 (pics are gone)
Source: by danielzink (Dan Z) at FSB
Towing in a 96 from Owner's Guide; "...GCWR (Gross Combined Weight Rating) is the maximum combined weight of the towing vehicle (including passengers and cargo) and the loaded trailer. The GCWR is specified by the manufacturer to indicate the combined maximum loaded weight that the vehicle is designed to tow. The Base Curb Weight is the weight of the vehicle including fuel, coolants, lubricants, emergency tools, spare wheel and tire. It also includes any equipment that is standard on that model. It does not include passengers, cargo or optional equipment installed by factory, dealer, aftermarket supplier or customer. Payload is the combined, maximum allowable weight of cargo, occupants and optional equipment that the truck is designed to carry. It is Gross Vehicle Weight Rating minus the base curb weight. If you add base curb weight and the weight of a load (including passengers, cargo and optional equipment) being carried at a particular time, you get the Gross Vehicle Weight (GVW). It is important to remember that GVW is not a limit or a specification. If an owner loads up a vehicle and weighs it, that’s the GVW at that moment. If the owner piles on more of a load and weighs it again, that becomes the GVW...until such time as the vehicle is unloaded. Gross Vehicle Weight Rating (GVWR) To avoid overloading a vehicle, the owner should observe the manufacturer’s specified Gross Vehicle Weight Rating. The GVWR is the maximum total weight of base vehicle, passengers, optional components and cargo that a particular vehicle was designed to carry. Gross Axle Weight Rating (GAWR), We have all seen a car or a truck that is loaded down in the rear and riding high in the front. This is a dangerous condition that usually means that the rear suspension components are under severe strain and that vehicle handling is impaired. There is more to carrying a load than just payload or GVWR. Your Safety Compliance Certification Label not only gives the GVWR, it also gives the Gross Axle Weight Rating (GAWR) which is the carrying capacity for each axle system. For trucks, the rear axle will be designed to carry more weight than the front. The rating is based on the carrying capacity of the lowest rated axle and suspension component as well as other factors. This is why it’s so important to observe vehicle loading ratings. Overloading a vehicle punishes components and can lead to shortened service life or outright failure. The capacity of the tires is included as part of the axle and suspension system, which is to be considered when determining the lowest rated component. Tires are rated to carry a specific maximum load at a specific maximum tire pressure. Passenger car type tires when installed on light trucks and multipurpose passenger vehicles are rated at 10% lower load carrying capacity due to the differences in vehicle usages. The vehicle must not be loaded to both the front and rear GAWR because the GVWR will be exceeded. The GAWR of the front and rear axles exceed the GVWR when added together to allow flexibility in fore and aft loading of cargo. With the tires inflated to the specified pressure the total weight of your vehicle must not exceed the GVWR and GAWR specified on the Safety Compliance Certification Label. This includes full fuel tank(s), vehicle equipment, and occupants as well as the cargo load. Maximum Trailer Weight Rating, The maximum weight of a trailer the vehicle is permitted to tow. The maximum trailer weight rating is specified by the manufacturer and is determined by subtracting the vehicle curb weight for each engine/transmission combination, any required option weight for trailer towing and the weight of the driver from the GCWR for the towing vehicle. The maximum weight of a trailer the loaded vehicle is permitted to tow. The maximum weight of the trailer is determined by subtracting the weight of the loaded towing vehicle (including passengers and cargo) from the GCWR for the towing vehicle. The trailer weight range is a specified range by weight, which the trailer must fall within, ranging from zero to the maximum trailer weight rating. Calculating The Load; To know how much weight your vehicle can carry: Obtain ratings from your Safety Compliance Certification Label, and the Trailer towing specifications in the owner guide (refer to the Index). Refer to the following sample illustration to locate the various ratings on your Safety Compliance Certification Label. If you do not plan on pulling a trailer, do not include these ratings into your calculations. Weigh your vehicle as you customarily operate the vehicle without cargo. Subtract the total weight of passengers, driver and optional equipment added by the factory, dealer or aftermarket supplier to determine how much cargo weight you can carrt. If you suspect that your payload is excessive, have your vehicle weighed at a highway weigh station or appropriate commercial facility. Weigh the total vehicle and trailer (if applicable), then separately weigh the vehicle at the front and rear wheels. And finally, weigh the trailer separately if applicable. Use this chart to perform your calculations. The Truck Safety Compliance Certification Label has two weight related entries that sometimes cause confusion. Front Axle Reserve Capacity in Pounds: On the sample label, this value is given as 83 pounds (38 kgs). Does this mean that you are limited to adding only 83 pounds (38 kgs) of accessories to the front end capacity? Not exactly. This says that you can load 83 pounds (38 kgs) of options on the front axle, add 150 pound (68 kgs) passengers to all seating positions, and add evenly distributed cargo in the box without exceeding the GAWR F. It is possible to hang heavier equipment on the front as long as the vehicle owner/operator compensates. This can be accomplished, if necessary, by carrying fewer passengers, less cargo or positioning cargo more toward the rear, which has the effect of reducing the load on the front. Keep in mind that the GAWR F, GAWRR, nor the GVWR should ever be exceeded. Total Accessory Reserve Capacity in Pounds: On the sample label this value is given as 112 pounds (51 kgs). This is a number that is related to government crash test standards, and only indirectly reflects on the amount of accessory weight that can be carried. In the case of both these numbers (83 and 112 pounds) (38 and 51 kgs), the important thing to remember is that for safe operation, an owner/operator should calculate the amount and the distribution of all weights (passengers, accessory equipment and cargo). These combined weights should fall below the vehicle’s GVWR and GAWR. Towing a trailer safely means having the proper weight on the tongue (usually 10% of the trailer weight). Load-equalizing hitches on large rigs may transfer weight to each of the vehicle’s axles. This weight must be included in capacity calculations when determining if the vehicle is loaded within safe limits. If your vehicle exceeds the GVWR, remove cargo from your vehicle accordingly. If your vehicle exceeds the GAWR for either axle, shift the load or remove cargo accordingly. If the GVWR or the GAWR specified on the Safety Compliance Certification Label is exceeded, your vehicle may be damaged or you may lose control and injure someone. Towing trailers beyond the maximum recommended gross trailer weight could result in engine damage, transmission/axle damage, structural damage, loss of control, and personal injury. Using the Safety Compliance Certification Label, find the axle code number and the engine type for your vehicle. Use the appropriate Maximum Gross Combined Weight Rating (GCWR) chart to find the Maximum GCWR for your type engine and rear axle ratio. Subtract your Loaded Vehicle Weight from the Maximum GCWR found in the chart. This is the maximum trailer weight your vehicle can tow and must fall below the maximum shown under Trailer Weight on the chart. Required equipment; Super Cooling is required with trailers over 2,000 lb (907 kg). Super Cooling and Handling/Suspension Package or trailer towing package is required with trailers over 3,500 lb (1587 kg). Hitches; Do not install a single or multi-clamp type bumper hitch, or a hitch which attaches to the axle. Underbody mounted hitches are acceptable if installed properly. Follow towing instructions of a reputable rental agency. Whenever a trailer hitch and hardware are removed, make sure all mounting holes in the underbody are properly sealed to prevent noxious gases or water from entering. Trailer Tow/Step bumper; The step bumper has a built-in hitch and only requires a ball with a one inch shank diameter. The step bumper has a limited Class III capability (4,000 lb/1814 kg trailer weight and 400 lb/180 kg tongue weight). NOTE: The rated capacities (as shown in this guide) for trailer towing with the factory bumper are only valid when the trailer hitch ball is installed directly into the ball hole in the bumper. Addition of bracketry to either lower the hitch ball position or extend the hitch ball rearward will significantly increase the loads on the bumper and its attachments. This can result in the failure of the bumper or the bumper attachments. Use of any type of hitch extensions should be considered abuse. If it is necessary to relocate the trailer hitch ball position a frame mounted trailer hitch must be installed. Always use safety chains between your vehicle and trailer. Cross chains under the trailer tongue and allow slack for turning corners. Connect safety chains to the vehicle frame or hook retainers. Never attach chains to the bumper. Separate trailer brakes are required on most towed vehicles weighing over 1,500 lb (680 kg). WARNING; Do not connect a trailer’s hydraulic brake system directly to your vehicle’s brake system. Your vehicle may not have enough braking power and your chances of having a collision greatly increase. Trailer Lamps; Make sure your trailer lamps conform to Federal and local regulations. Your vehicle has been equipped for use with a 4-wire trailer tow electrical system (running lamps, right hand stop/turn, left hand stop/turn, and ground). Class I and Class II Trailer Tow electrical wiring provides two circuits (right hand and left hand) to operate trailer stop/turn tail lamps. Each stop/turn circuit will operate one combination stop/turn light bulb (# 1157, 3157, 2357, or 3357) on the trailer. Never add more than one trailer light bulb to one circuit. A wire harness (Ford part number F5TB-13A576-A) has been provided that connects to the frame wire harness at the rear of the vehicle and is compatible with most 4-wire trailer tow electrical systems. Always check trailer and vehicle functions (i.e., stop/turn signal, and running lights) before operating your vehicle and trailer. If your vehicle fails to function properly, do not operate your vehicle and trailer until corrections are made. Driving while you tow; Be especially careful when driving while you tow a trailer. Never drive faster than 45 mph (70 km/h) when you tow in hilly country on hot days. Also, anticipate stops so that you can brake gradually. If you use the speed control while you are towing on very long, steep grades, the speed control may shut off. If your vehicle is equipped with an Electronic 4-Speed Automatic (E4OD or 4R70W) transmission, operate in Overdrive. Refer to the automatic transmission operation earlier in this chapter. When descending a steep grade with a trailer,operate in Drive rather than Overdrive. If additional braking is needed, shift the automatic transmission gearshift into 2 (Second) gear or 1 (Low). If your vehicle is equipped with a manual 5-speed transmission, operate in 4th gear. Overdrive (5th) gear should not be used when towing. If additional braking is needed when descending a steep grade with a trailer, downshift the transmission into 3rd gear. Trailer towing tips; Before starting on a trip, practice turning, stopping and backing in an area away from heavy traffic. Get to know the “feel” of the vehicle/trailer combination. Practice backing up. Back up very slowly, with someone outside at the rear of your trailer to guide you. Place your hand at the bottom of the steering wheel and move it in the direction you want the rear of the trailer to swing. Slight movement of the steering wheel results in a much larger movement of the rear of the trailer. Allow more room for stopping with a trailer attached. Trailer brakes should be applied first, whether manually or automatically controlled, when approaching a stop. For a good handling truck-trailer combination, the trailer tongue load should be approximately 10-15% of the loaded trailer weight. Make a thorough check of your equipment before starting out on the road. After you have traveled about 50 miles (80 km) stop in a protected area and double-check your hitch and electrical connections. Also check trailer wheel lug nuts for tightness. When turning, drive slightly beyond the normal turning point so the trailer wheels will clear curbs or other obstructions. When stopped in traffic for long periods of time in hot weather, place the gearshift selector lever in P (Park) to increase the engine idle speed. This aids in engine cooling and air conditioner efficiency. If the engine overheats, move the function selector knob to VENT to stop the compressor and increase the engine speed for a short time. Vehicles with trailers should not be parked on a grade. However, if you must park on a grade, place wheel chocks under the trailer’s wheels as follows: Apply the foot service brakes and hold. Have another person place the wheel chocks under the trailer wheels. With the chocks in place, release the foot service brakes, making sure the chocks are holding. For automatic transmissions — apply the parking brake by pressing the service brake pedal down firmly with your right foot while applying the parking brake pedal with your left foot. For manual transmissions — apply the service brake and shift into N (NEUTRAL) while still maintaining pressure on the service brake pedal. Set the parking brake fully. Shift an automatic transmission into Park (P). Put the gearshift of a manual transmission in Reverse. If your vehicle is equipped with four-wheel drive make sure the transfer case is not in Neutral. To start, after being parked on a grade: Apply the foot service brakes and hold. Start the engine. Shift transmission into gear and release the parking brake. Release the foot service brakes and move the vehicle uphill to free the wheel chocks. Apply the foot service brakes and hold while another person retrieves the chocks..."
Source: by Ford via